Poland is located at a geographic crossroads that links the forested lands of northwestern Europe to the sea lanes of the Atlantic Ocean and the fertile plains of the Eurasian frontier. Now bounded by seven nations, Poland has waxed and waned over the centuries, buffeted by the forces of regional history. Yet two and a half centuries later, during the Partitions of Poland — , it disappeared, parceled out among the contending empires of Russia , Prussia , and Austria. Even at a time of national crisis, however, Polish culture remained strong; indeed, it even flourished, if sometimes far from home. The Polish constitution of , the oldest in Europe, in turn incorporated ideals of the American and French revolutions. Poles later settled in great numbers in the United States , Canada , Argentina , and Australia and carried their culture with them.

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Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Apart from that, each minister is individually responsible, in his domain, for his activities in office; that is, as well for their conformity with the constitution and the other statutes of the state, and for the activities of the subordinate organs, as for the direction of his policies. While he retains his office, a deputy may not, without the permission of the Sejm, be made to answer before a criminal court, penal-administrative authority, or a disciplinary court, or be deprived of his freedom.

All citizens are subject to military service ; the character and manner, order and term of service, exemption from such duty, and any duties, contributions or services, for military purposes, will be defined by legislation. In both marcoa the Senate is automatically dissolved at the same time. The Sejm elects from among its members, the Marshal, his deputies, the secretaries, and committees. It was also supposed to provide wide-ranging rights to the national and ethnic minorities living in the Republic of Poland.

The Republic of Poland, basing its organization on the principle of broad territorial self-government, will delegate to the bodies representing this self-government the proper domain of legislation, especially in administrative, cultural and economic fields, to be defined more fully by statutes of the state.

Learned investigations and the publication of their results konstytkcja free. The Sejm, when convoked in October for its ordinary session, may not be closed before the budget has been voted. The secrecy of letters and other correspondence may be infringed upon only in cases provided by law. Permanent employment of children and young people of school age for wage-earning purposes is forbidden. At the request of those addressing the interpellation, the answer must be communicated to the Sejm.

Should konstytucjw Sejm be dissolved at the moment when the office of President of the Republic becomes vacant, the Marshal of the Sejm will direct without delay new elections to the Sejm and the Senate. Special statutes determine the protection of motherhood. If the President of the Republic does not perform the duties of his office for three months, the Marshal will without delay convoke the Sejm and submit to its decision the question whether the office of the President of the Republic is to be declared vacant.

The President of the Republic convokes, opens, adjourns, and closes the Sejm and Senate. The timestamp is only as accurate as the clock in the camera, and it may be completely wrong. The competence and powers of such committees will be determined by the Sejm.

A deputy is also debarred from receiving from the government any decorations other than military. Views View Edit History. ComiXology Thousands of Digital Comics. Marcoda can originate either with the government or with the Sejm. A vote is valid only when carried by a plurality vote in the presence of at least one-third of the total statutory number of deputies, in so far as provisions of this constitution do not contain other rules. The state will insure to pupils who are exceptionally able, but not well-to-do, scholarships for their maintenance in secondary and academic schools.

Every citizen having the right to vote is eligible for election to marcosa Sejm, independently of his place of residence, if he is at least twenty-five years of age, not excepting members of the army in active service.

Within the same limits, the ministers are jointly and individually responsible for the governmental acts of the President of the Republic. File:Konstytucja Marcowa President of the [Council of] Ministers Witos. You must also include a United States public domain tag to indicate why this work is in the public domain in the United States. Learn more at Author Central. The Council of Ministers or any individual konstythcja will resign at the request of the Sejm.

Within the limits of the elementary school, instruction is compulsory for all citizens of the state. Amazon Second Chance Pass it on, trade it in, give it a second life.

The cause is heard and the sentence given by the Court of State, according to the rules of a special statute. TOP Related Articles.




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