Ghurye had been engaged in building up; almost single handedly, the entire first generation of Indian sociologists in post-independence period. These pioneers provided direction to shape the future of sociology in India. And, of all these, none did as much for sociology in India as Ghurye. First, his role in promoting and directing the course of research in diverse fields of Indian society as a teacher, as an institution builder and as a scholar ; and b. Ghurye excelled in both of them.

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Indology G S Ghurye Indology:- "Indology is basically the use of ancient texts and scriptures of India by the sociologists to understand the social and cultural life in India". Indology is known as the science of Indian Society. It made a claim that Indian Society is unique in structure, function and dynamics and cannot be associated with the European Society. Indology relies on book view and culture and denounces rigorous empirical investigation.

Indology demands inter-disciplinary, multi- disciplinary and cross disciplinary approach". Indology is also older than Sociology. It is antique in its origin owing its origin to by Sir William Jones of Calcutta.

It is the beginning of Indology in India, which has been followed by several other scholars. They have contributed tremendously for the development of the society and from their contribution there was the evolving of Indological Perspective. All of them have based their studies on rich cultural tradition of India and the principle that govern India and out laws of Hindu.

Therefore they were also called as the Indologist. Hence, it is a subject of sociological interest. Ghurye considers it as unfortunate that caste system is mostly understood in terms of Brahminic domination. Caste has gone through the process of fusion and fission in different ways in Indian history. During Vedic period caste was a product of race. Ghurye points out that caste was considered as central to organized form of division of labour in Aryan society. Ghurye explains caste in India on the basis of six distinctive characteristics: Segmental division of society; Civil and religious disabilities and privileges; Lack of unrestricted choice of occupation; Restriction on food, drinks and social intercourse; Endogamy.

Segmental division of the society: Segment is the compartmentalization of the population into groups. It generates social grouping but not labelling. The membership is ascribed in character, i. Based on the membership every member has fixed status, roles and tasks.

According to the roles assigned they have to perform it. There are moral ethics, obligations and justification value behind these roles. Hierarchy: It is the second major characteristic of caste through which Hindu social organization and Indian Society penetrates.

Hierarchy determines caste norms. According to Ghurye hierarchy becomes the major consideration for deciding all these aforesaid variables. It basically implies the Division of Labour. The entire gamut of activities in the society is divided into four types like Religious, Maintenance and Menial. Therefore Brahmin are given this responsibility.

So it is accorded to Khatriyas. The managerial activities are fixed on Vaishyas, who have to generate sustenance for the society. Civil and religious disabilities: Civil and religious disabilities expressed the rigidity of the caste system. To Ghurye the general reflection of Hindu social life was observed and felt through such disabilities.

Lack of unrestricted choice of occupation: The occupations have been fixed by heredity. The upper caste people like Brahmins are free to opt for study of religious books, while this cannot be done by other classes. Restriction on food, drinks and social intercourse: Some rules have been imposed upon all caste people. Restriction on feeding and social intercourse are still prevalent in Indian society.

Endogamy: Indian caste system is also polarized due to endogamy being determined primarily by Caste. People can marry within caste only. Therefore voluntarily they assimilate themselves within the folds of Hindu society. Hence their assimilation within Indian society is almost complete.

Therefore tribes of India arebackward Hindus. So in many rural areas, one part of a village started functioning into a market.

This led to a township, which in turn developed administrative, judicial and other institutions. In the past, urban centres were based on feudal patronage, which had demands for silk cloths, jewellery, metal artifacts, weapons etc. During colonial times, the growth of metropolitan centres altered the Indian life.

The towns and cities were no longer the outlets for agricultural produce and handicrafts but they became the major manufacturing centres. Thus, the metropolitan economy emerged to dominate the village economy. A large city or metropolis also functioned as the centre of culture of the territory encompassing it.

The functions of the city are to perform a culturally integrative role, to act as a point of focus and the centre of radiation of the major tenets of the age. Ghurye views an urban planner must tackle the problems of sufficient supply of drinking water, human congestion, traffic congestion, regulation of public vehicles, insufficiency of railway transport in cities, erosion of trees, sound pollution, indiscriminate tree felling and plight of the pedestrians.

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S Ghurye Abstract The objective of this paper is to explain the various terms related to Indological or textual perspective of G. S Ghurye who was an indologist, sociologist and anthropologist. The Indian society can be understood of two different dimensions; one is Indological approach and other is sociological which Ghurye made use of his study and works in contribution to Indian society through these approaches. And Indological studies done through two types; one is Indology or Indic studies and other is oriental studies. Caste and Race in India summarized which is one of the best books of G. S Ghurye. Key Words Indology, Textual, Hindu tradition, caste, race, kin and kinship system, caste system, Indological approach, sociological approach, Indic studies, oriental and caste and race in India.


Indological or Textual Perspective of Sociology – Explained

Ghurye Indological Approach of G. In the application of theories to empirical exercises or in the use of methodologies for data collection he was not dogmatic. He seems to have believed in practicing and encouraging disciplined eclecticism in theory and methodology. It would be appropriate to characterize Ghurye as a practitioner of theoretical pluralism. Basically interested in inductive empirical exercises and depicting Indian social reality using any source material —primarily Indological — his theoretical position bordered on laissez-faire. Ghurye was initially influenced by the reality of diffusionist approach of British social anthropology but subsequently he switched on to the studies of Indian society from indological and anthropological perspectives.


Indology Perspective by G S Ghurye

Sociology of Conflict and Integration. Family and Marriage. He also emphasized on understanding of order and change in society. The guiding force in Indian society was the Hindu ideology. Even the Indian secularism was a product of the tolerant spirit of Hinduism. Ghurye on India: India is surviving as a nation because of common value consensus.

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