The canon promulgated at the Council of Trent —63 , by which the Roman Catholic Church addressed the representational arts by demanding that paintings and sculptures in church contexts should speak to the illiterate rather than to the well-informed, is customarily offered as an inspiration of the Baroque, which appeared, however, a generation later. This turn toward a populist conception of the function of ecclesiastical art is seen by many art historians as driving the innovations of Caravaggio and the Carracci brothers, all of whom were working and competing for commissions in Rome around The appeal of Baroque style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses. It employed an iconography that was direct, simple, obvious, and dramatic see the Prometheus sculpture below. Some general parallels in music make the expression "Baroque music" useful: there are contrasting phrase lengths, harmony and counterpoint have ousted polyphony , and orchestral color makes a stronger appearance.
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The canon promulgated at the Council of Trent —63 , by which the Roman Catholic Church addressed the representational arts by demanding that paintings and sculptures in church contexts should speak to the illiterate rather than to the well-informed, is customarily offered as an inspiration of the Baroque, which appeared, however, a generation later. This turn toward a populist conception of the function of ecclesiastical art is seen by many art historians as driving the innovations of Caravaggio and the Carracci brothers, all of whom were working and competing for commissions in Rome around The appeal of Baroque style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses.
It employed an iconography that was direct, simple, obvious, and dramatic see the Prometheus sculpture below. Some general parallels in music make the expression "Baroque music" useful: there are contrasting phrase lengths, harmony and counterpoint have ousted polyphony , and orchestral color makes a stronger appearance.
See the entry Baroque music. Though Baroque was superseded in many centers by the Rococo style, beginning in France in the late s, especially for interiors, paintings and the decorative arts, Baroque architecture remained a viable style until the advent of Neoclassicism in the later 18th century. See the Neapolitan palace of Caserta , a Baroque palace though in a chaste exterior that was not even begun until Critics have given up talking about a "Baroque period".
In paintings, Baroque gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures: less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera , a major Baroque artform. Baroque poses depend on contrapposto "counterpoise" , the tension within the figures that moves the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections. See the entry Claude Perrault. Baroque is a style of unity imposed upon rich and massy detail. Art historians, often Protestant ones, have traditionally emphasized that the Baroque style evolved during a time in which the Roman Catholic Church had to react against the many revolutionary cultural movements that produced a new science and new forms of religion — Reformation.
It has been said that the monumental Baroque is a style that could give the Papacy , like secular absolute monarchies , a formal, imposing way of expression that could restore its prestige, at the point of becoming somehow symbolic of the Catholic Reformation.
Whether this is the case or not, it was successfully developed in Rome , where Baroque architecture widely renewed the central areas with perhaps the most important urbanistic revision. Baroque visual art Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci , a moment caught in a dramatic action from a classical source, bursting from the picture plane in a sweeping diagonal perspective.
The later baroque style gives way gradually to Rococo. A comparison with Rococo, will help define Baroque by contrast. Baroque sculpture In Baroque sculpture, groups of figures assumed new importance, and there was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms— they spiralled around an empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space.
For the first time, Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles. The characteristic Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains.
The architecture, sculpture and fountains of Bernini — give highly-charged characteristics of Baroque style. Bernini was undoubtedly the most important sculptor of the Baroque period. He approached Michelangelo in his omnicompetence: Bernini sculpted, worked as an architect, painted, wrote plays, and staged spectacles. In the late 20th century Bernini was most valued for his sculpture, both for his virtuosity in carving marble and his ability to create figures that combine the physical and the spiritual.
He was also a fine sculptor of bust portraits in high demand among the powerful. Bernini designed the entire chapel, a subsidiary space along the side of the church, for the Cornaro family. He had, in essence, a brick box shaped something like a proscenium stage space with which to work.
He created a main statue as the focal point of the chapel, surrounded the monochromatic marble statue a soft white with a polychromatic marble architectural framing concealing a window to light the statue from above, and placed shallow relief sculpture figure-groups of the Cornaro family in opera boxes along the two side walls of the chapel.
The setting places the viewer as a spectator in front of the statue with the Cornaro family leaning out of their box seats and craning forward to see the mystical ecstasy of the saint. The statue of St. Theresa of Avila is highly idealized in detail and in an imaginary setting.
Theresa of Avila , one of the most popular saints of the Catholic Reformation , wrote narratives of her mystical experiences aimed at the nuns of her Carmelite Order ; these writings had become popular reading among lay people interested in pursuing spirituality.
She once described the love of God as piercing her heart like a burning arrow. Bernini literalizes this image by placing St. Theresa on a cloud in a reclining pose; what can only be described as a Cupid figure holds a golden arrow the arrow is made of metal and smiles down at her. The angelic figure is not preparing to plunge the arrow into her heart— rather, he has withdrawn it. The blending of religious and erotic was intensely offensive to both neoclassical restraint and, later on, to Victorian prudishness; it is part of the genius of the Baroque.
Bernini, who shows every sign in his writings of being a convinced and conventionally devout Catholic, is not attempting to satirize the experience of a virgin who lived a life of chastity , but rather reflects a complex truth about religious experience— that it is an experience that takes place in the body.
Theresa described her bodily reaction to spiritual enlightenment in a language of ecstasy used by many mystics, and Bernini did her the favor of taking her seriously.
The Cornaro family promotes itself discreetly in this chapel; they are represented visually, but are placed on the sides of the chapel, witnessing the event from balconies. As in an opera house , the Cornaro have a privileged position in respect to the viewer, in their private reserve, closer to the saint; the viewer, however, has a better view from the front. They attach their name to the chapel, but St. Theresa is the focus. It is a private chapel in the sense that no one could say mass on the altar beneath the statue in the 17th century and probably through the 19th without permission from the family, but the only thing that divides the viewer from the image is the altar rail.
The spectacle functions both as a demonstration of mysticism and as a piece of family pride.
He received his degree from Munich University in in philosophy, although he was already on a course to study the newly minted discipline of art history. It is considered now to be one of the founding texts of the emerging discipline of art history, although it was barely noted when it was published. He is credited with having introduced the teaching method of using twin parallel projectors in the delivery of art history lectures, so that images could be compared when magic lanterns became less dangerous. Sir Ernst Gombrich recalled being inspired by him, as well as Erwin Panofsky. These were: From linear draughtsmanship, plastic, relating to contour in projected ideation of objects to painterly malerisch: tactile, observing patches or systems of relative light and of non-local colour within shade, making shadow and light integral, and allowing them to replace or supersede the dominance of contours as fixed boundaries. From closed tectonic form to open a-tectonic form The closed or tectonic form is the composition which is a self-contained entity which everywhere points back to itself, the typical form of ceremonial style as the revelation of law, generally within predominantly vertical and horizontal oppositions; the open or atectonic form compresses energies and angles or lines of motion which everywhere reach out beyond the composition, and override the horizontal and vertical structure, though naturally bound together by hidden rules which allow the composition to be self-contained. In the former case, co-ordination of the accents; in the latter, subordination.
Renaissance and Baroque
It is important to remember, though, that the pairs of categories he proposes are comparative, not absolute. The division into categories is only for the purposes of analysis. The boundaries of each solid element whether human or inanimate are definite and clear; each figure is evenly illuminated, and stands out boldly like a piece of sculpture In contrast, in a painterly painting, the figures are not evenly illuminated but are fused together, seen in a strong light which comes from one direction and reveals some things while it obscures others. Contours are lost in shadow, swift brush-strokes bind separate parts together rather than isolating them from one another. Some figures are barely visible. Planar and Recessional Planar means that the elements of the painting are arranged on a series of planes parallel to the picture plane. In the Raphael, for example, the first plane is given by the small step in front.