HANGUGEO 2 PDF

All dialects of Korean are similar to each other and largely mutually intelligible with the exception of dialect-specific phrases or non-Standard vocabulary unique to dialectsthough the dialect of Jeju Island is divergent enough to be sometimes hajgugeo as a separate language. Korean speech levels and Korean honorifics. Contributors Korean Topik Korean Topik. Similar products Customers also bought Customers also viewed. History of the Korean language. Korean language — Wikipedia The exact proportion of Sino-Korean vocabulary is a matter of debate.

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Main article: History of the Korean language Modern Korean descends from Middle Korean , which in turn descends from Old Korean , which descends from the Proto-Koreanic language which is generally suggested to have its linguistic homeland somewhere in Manchuria. Both had influence on each other and a later founder effect diminished the internal variety of both language families. It was adapted for Korean and became known as Hanja , and remained as the main script for writing Korean through over a millennium alongside various phonetic scripts that were later invented such as Idu , Gugyeol and Hyangchal.

Mainly privileged elites were educated to read and write in Hanja. However, most of the population was illiterate. In the 15th century, King Sejong the Great personally developed an alphabetic featural writing system known today as Hangul.

Introduced in the document " Hunminjeongeum ", it was called "eonmun" colloquial script and quickly spread nationwide to increase literacy in Korea.

Hangul was widely used by all the Korean classes but often treated as "amkeul" script for female and disregarded by privileged elites, whereas Hanja was regarded as "jinseo" true text. Consequently, official documents were always written in Hanja during the Joseon era. Neither South Korea or North Korea opposes the learning of Hanja , though they are not officially used in North Korea anymore, and their usage in South Korea is mainly reserved for specific circumstances, such as newspapers, scholarly papers, and disambiguation.

Since the Korean War , through 70 years of separation, North—South differences have developed in standard Korean, including variations in pronunciation and vocabulary chosen, but these minor differences can be found in any of the Korean dialects and still largely mutually intelligible.

The English word "Korean" is derived from Goryeo , which is thought to be the first Korean dynasty known to Western nations. In South Korea, the Korean language is referred to by many names including hanguk-eo "Korean language" , hanguk-mal "Korean speech" and uri-mal "our language".

Korean is also simply referred to as guk-eo, literally "national language". This is taken from the North Korean name for Korea Joseon , a name retained from the Joseon dynasty until the proclamation of the Korean Empire , which in turn was annexed by the Empire of Japan.

The hypothesis that Korean could be related to Japanese has had some supporters due to some overlap in vocabulary and similar grammatical features that have been elaborated upon by such researchers as Samuel E.

Martin [20] and Roy Andrew Miller. Also, the doublet wo meaning "hemp" is attested in Western Old Japanese and Southern Ryukyuan languages. It is thus plausible to assume a borrowed term. Another lesser-known theory is the Dravido-Korean languages theory which suggests a relation with Dravidian in India. Some of the common features in the Korean and Dravidian languages are that they share some similar vocabulary, are agglutinative, and follow the SOV order; in both languages, nominals and adjectives follow the same syntax, particles are post-positional, and modifiers always precede modified words.

This suggests a strong Korean presence or influence on Khitan. The linguist Choi [33] suggested already in a close relationship between Turkic and Korean regardless of any Altaic connections: In addition, the fact that the morphological elements are not easily borrowed between languages, added to the fact that the common morphological elements between Korean and Turkic are not less numerous than between Turkic and other Altaic languages, strengthens the possibility that there is a close genetic affinity between Korean and Turkic.

Modern Korean belongs, like Sillan , to the Han-branch. Currently, Korean is the fourth most popular foreign language in China, following English, Japanese, and Russian.

Korean is the official language of South Korea and North Korea. In South Korea, the regulatory body for Korean is the Seoul -based National Institute of the Korean Language , which was created by presidential decree on January 23, The King Sejong Institute was established in response to: An increase in the demand for Korean language education; a rapid increase in Korean language education thanks to the spread of hallyu , an increase in international marriage, the expansion of Korean enterprises into overseas markets, and enforcement of employment licensing system; the need for a government-sanctioned Korean language educational institution; the need for general support for overseas Korean language education based on a successful domestic language education program.

Topik Korea Institute[ edit ] The Topik Korea Institute is a lifelong educational center affiliated with a variety of Korean universities in Seoul, South Korea, whose aim is to promote Korean language and culture, support local Korean teaching internationally, and facilitate cultural exchanges.

The institute is sometimes compared to language and culture promotion organizations such as the King Sejong Institute. Unlike that organization, however, Topik Korea Institutes operate within established universities and colleges around the world, providing educational materials.

All dialects of Korean are similar to each other and largely mutually intelligible with the exception of dialect-specific phrases or non-Standard vocabulary unique to dialects , though the dialect of Jeju Island is divergent enough to be sometimes classified as a separate language. There is substantial evidence for a history of extensive dialect levelling , or even convergent evolution or intermixture of two or more originally distinct linguistic stocks, within the Korean language and its dialects.

This suggests that the Korean Peninsula may have at one time been much more linguistically diverse than it is at present. Nonetheless, the separation of the two Korean states has resulted in increasing differences among the dialects that have emerged over time. Since the allies of the newly-founded nations split the Korean peninsula in half after , the newly formed Korean nations have since borrowed vocabulary extensively from their respective allies.

As the Soviet Union helped industrialize North Korea and establish it as a communist state, the North Koreans therefore borrowed a number of Russian terms. Likewise, since the United States helped South Korea extensively to develop militarily, economically, and politically, South Koreans therefore borrowed extensively from English.

The differences among northern and southern dialects have become so significant that many North Korean defectors reportedly have had great difficulty communicating with South Koreans after having initially settled into South Korea. In response to the diverging vocabularies, an app called Univoca was designed to help North Korean defectors learn South Korean terms by translating them into North Korean ones. Aside from the standard language, there are few clear boundaries between Korean dialects, and they are typically partially grouped according to the regions of Korea.

Seoul ; very similar to Incheon and most of Gyeonggi , west of Gangwon-do Yeongseo region ; also commonly used among younger Koreans nationwide and in online context.

Standard language of DPRK.

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