According to Ottoman police records, about 70 percent of the anarchist groups were of Armenian origin, while the anarchist Muslim Ottomans constituted some 9 percent of the total. However, the terms "anarchism" and "anarchist" in police records should not be taken as the exact proof for the number of political dissidents believing in and acting for anarchism as a philosophical and political movement. Some of these "anarchists" chased by the police could have been socialists and minority nationalists. Whatever the situation was, Muslim Ottomans were not in the center of anarchist actions and anarchism as a political movement during the last decades of the Ottoman State. On the other hand, we have enough written proof to believe that there were peaceful anarchists, too, especially among the Muslim Ottomans. Besides such ideas and movements with apparently European origins as nationalism, socialism, libertarianism, positivism and naturalism, anarchism also arose within the Ottoman intelligentsia during the Constitutional era after the Revolution.
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