Sithembile April 17, , am Dear Bernadette, Removing this invader is quite labor intensive and requires great caution. The plant reproduces vegetatively, and the underground tubers tend to establish quite quickly which makes it difficult to use mechanical control. However, the literature suggests the use Glyphosate for chemical control. You can email me directly for further assistance.
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Introduced, naturalised or invasive in East Africa Anredera cordifolia is invasive in parts of Kenya and Uganda where is has escaped from cultivation, is invasive in many cities and is invading woodlots and forests.
It is known to be present in Tanzania but its invasive status is unknown A. Witt pers. Habitat Anredera cordifolia is a weed of forest gaps and margins, moist woodlands, bushland, riparian zones banks of watercourses , waste areas, disturbed sites, gardens, parks, plantation crops e. Description A long-lived perennial , twining or climbing plant growing over taller plants and trees up to 30 m tall. The stems are hairless glabrous and grow in a twining fashion. Younger stems are green or reddish in colour and round in cross-section.
They become rope-like in appearance and turn greyish-brown in colour as they mature. Distinctive greyish-brown or greenish-coloured warty tubers cm long, but usually cm long often form at the joints nodes along the older stems. These wart-like tubers are very characteristic. The leaves are alternately arranged , slightly fleshy semi- succulent in nature, hairless glabrous and sometimes have a glossy appearance. They are borne on leaf stalks petioles mm long and are more or less heart-shaped cordate or broadly egg-shaped with broad end at base ovate.
These leaves cm long and 1. Plants produce masses of drooping flower clusters cm long which arise from the forks axils of the upper leaves. Each flower cluster raceme bears numerous small, white or cream-coloured, fragrant flowers about 5 mm across.
They also have five stamens and an ovary topped with a three-branched style and three tiny club-shaped stigmas. The petals mm long are fleshy, persistent, turn dark brown or black in colour with age. This plant does not produce fruit in Africa. Reproduction and dispersal Anredera cordifolia mainly spreads via large numbers of specialised aerial tubers that are produced along the stems.
They are also spread shorter distances after falling off stems high in the canopy by gravity and can be transported downstream in floods. If fragments end up in waterways, they are easily transported to new locations in this manner. It also spreads vegetatively by tuberous roots and creeping underground stems rhizomes. Similar species In Kenya, Anredera cordifolia is sometimes confused with the indigenous Basella alba L in the family Basellaceae.
The leaves of B. The distinguishing feature is the presence of wart-like tubers in A. Economic and other uses Anredera cordifolia has been spread around the world as an ornamental plant. Environmental and other impacts Anredera cordifolia is a highly invasive weed capable of smothering and destroying native vegetation. It is regarded as an environmental weed in many parts of the world. It is most problematic in moist forests, rainforest margins and riparian zones banks of watercourses ; where it has the ability to establish under an intact canopy and can quickly engulf native species.
The growth rate of stems in warmer and moister regions can exceed 1 m per week, and it can grow up to 6 m in a growing season. Its climbing stems can totally envelop the canopy layer, while is trailing stems also smother the ground layer of invaded habitats. This reduces light penetration, eventually killing the plants underneath and preventing the germination and regeneration of native plants.
The sheer weight of dense infestations can even bring down trees in the canopy layer, and in this way A. It is poisonous and its sap is a skin irritant.
Because it quickly proliferates from small vegetative parts its aerial tubers , and also survives by underground tubers , A. The tubers are often dispersed in dumped garden waste and contaminated soil which supplements natural dispersal. It has been listed as an noxious weed in South Africa prohibited plants that must be controlled. They serve no economic purpose and possess characteristics that are harmful to humans, animals or the environment , New South Wales and Queensland Australia and Hawaii.
Management The precise management measures adopted for any plant invasion will depend upon factors such as the terrain, the cost and availability of labour, the severity of the infestation and the presence of other invasive species. Some components of an integrated management approach are introduced below. The best form of invasive species management is prevention.
If prevention is no longer possible, it is best to treat the weed infestations when they are small to prevent them from establishing early detection and rapid response. Controlling the weed before it seeds will reduce future problems. Control is generally best applied to the least infested areas before dense infestations are tackled.
Consistent follow-up work is required for sustainable management. The following account of A. Once established Madeira vine is very difficult to control. The standard approach is to scrape long sections of the vines with a knife, from ground level up to head height, and immediately paint with neat glyphosate. Scraping of Madeira must be done gently to avoid severing the vine. Thicker vines should be scraped deep enough to expose the white fibrous core of the vine. The vines are either carefully scraped and painted between the attached tubers or the tubers are removed from the lower section of the vine before scraping and placed in a bag.
Bagging prevents aerial tubers from being knocked to the ground where they will eventually start growing. A proportion of the aerial tubers above the scraping will then rot with the rest of the vine and the remainder will fall to the ground. Where dense tuberlings occur around the climbing vines it may be beneficial to spray these before treating larger vines to avoid damaging them by trampling.
Otherwise time must be allowed for them to recover to a sprayable condition. When using any herbicide always read the label first and follow all instructions and safety requirements. If in doubt consult an expert. The key ingredient for the management of Madeira Vine at any site is regular follow-up weeding. It is easy to treat a large area of canopy vines initially, whereas it is very difficult to maintain a treated area over time.
Areas of dense ground layer infestation typically require as many as 6 follow-up treatments per year to prevent the vines from climbing. It is essential that there is a consistent reduction of tuber input on a site for long-term success. Subsequent weeding of an area must occur regularly enough to prevent underground tubers from re-sprouting vines that climb up to produce new aerial tubers. Removal of available climbing ladders such as cut stems of Lantana is beneficial.
Hope for sustainable control of Madeira vine centres on biological control. Legislation Not listed as a noxious weed by the state or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. References GISD Global Invasive Species Database online data sheet.
Anredera cordifolia vine , climber. Accessed March Global Compendium of Weeds. Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project. Accessed January Henderson, L. Alien weeds and invasive plants. A complete guide to declared weeds and invaders in South Africa.
Maundu, P. Traditional Food Plants of Kenya. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi. Rainforest Rescue. Managing Madeira Vine. Anredera cordifolia Ten. Heartleaf madeiravine. The Plants Database. Accessed 5 March Wikipedia contributors.
Garden locations Culture Winter hardy to USDA Zones where this vine is easily grown in humusy, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. This is a subtropical vine that only tolerates brief instances of light frost. It is evergreen, aggressive and difficult to control in warm frost-free climates Zones , but deciduous and less aggressive in climates where winter frost occurs. Stems will be killed to the ground by hard frosts, but plants will resprout in spring as long as the roots do not freeze over winter.
Boussingaultia basselloides Boussingaultia cordifolia Anredera cordifolia, commonly known as the Madeira-vine  or mignonette vine,  is a South American species of ornamental succulent vine of the family Basellaceae. The combination of fleshy leaves and thick aerial tubers makes this a very heavy vine. It smothers trees and other vegetation it grows on and can easily break branches and bring down entire trees on its own. Wart-like tubers are produced on aerial stems and are a key to identifying the plant. The plant spreads via the tubers, which detach very easily.
Madeira Vine, Lamb’s Tail, Mignonette Vine