It comprises drawing lines from two points in the plane of a circle meeting at a point on the circumference and making equal angles with the normal at that point. This is equivalent to finding the point on the edge of a circular billiard table at which a player must aim a cue ball at a given point to make it bounce off the table edge and hit another ball at a second given point. Thus, its main application in optics is to solve the problem, "Given a light source and a spherical mirror, find the point on the mirror where the light will be reflected to the eye of an observer. His method can be readily generalized to find the formula for the sum of any integral powers, although he did not himself do this perhaps because he only needed the fourth power to calculate the volume of the paraboloid he was interested in. He used his result on sums of integral powers to perform what would now be called an integration , where the formulas for the sums of integral squares and fourth powers allowed him to calculate the volume of a paraboloid. His solution was extremely long and complicated and may not have been understood by mathematicians reading him in Latin translation.

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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The stories related to his life are often contradictory, depending on the historian relating them. Most of the data on the biography of Ibn al-Haytham came from the writings of the thirteenth century Muslim historian Ibn al-Qifti — Initially, Ibn al-Haytham was trained for a civil service job and was appointed as a judge for Basra. Due to the presence of various religious movements with diverse and conflicting views at that time, he became disillusioned with religious studies and decided to dedicate his time and effort for the study of science.

His knowledge in mathematics and physics became legendary and he was well known in Iraq, Syria and Egypt. Al-Hakim, a Shiite of the Ismaili sect, was known to be an eccentric ruler who issued several arbitrary edicts and laws, prohibiting the consumption of certain foods, preventing women from leaving their homes, killing all the dogs, and forcing people to work during the night and rest by day. He was quite brutal and had killed his tutors and ministers on a whim.

To avoid the potential of the deadly wrath and anger of his temperamental and mentally unstable patron, he faked insanity. Following his release from house arrest, he lived in a domed building Qubbah close to the Azhar Mosque in Cairo, teaching mathematics and physics, writing science texts, and making money by copying texts.

He wrote his introduction of the scientific methods. He wrote more than works on a wide range of subjects, of which at least 96 of his scientific works are known, and approximately 50 of them have survived to date. Nearly half of his surviving works are on mathematics, 23 of them are on astronomy, and 14 of them are on optics, with a few on other areas of science. Islamic philosophy developed in the Middle Ages and was pivotal in scientific debates.

The key figures for these debates were scientists and philosophers. Ibn al-Haytham was quite influential in this regard. The way in which Ibn al-Haytham combined observations and rational arguments had a great influence on Roger Bacon and Johnnes Kepler in particular. Ibn al-Haytham developed rigorous experimental methods of controlled scientific testing in order to verify theoretical hypotheses and substantiate inductive conjectures.

His investigations were based not on abstract theories, but on experimental evidences. The first real appreciation of the action of a lens, in particular the ability of a convex form to produce a magnified image of an object, appears to be credited to Ibn al-Haytham. He also carried out the first experiments on the dispersion of light into its constituent colors.

He dealt at length with the theory of various physical phenomena like shadows, eclipses, the rainbow, and speculated on the physical nature of light. He also attempted to explain binocular vision, and gave a correct explanation of the apparent increase in size of the sun and the moon when near the horizon. He is known for the earliest use of the camera obscura and pinhole camera. Through these extensive researches on optics, he has been considered as the father of modern optics. This supplement contained further investigations on the properties of luminance and its radiant dispersion through various transparent and translucent media.

In his treatise, Mizan al-Hikmah Balance of Wisdom , Ibn al-Haytham discussed the density of the atmosphere and related it to altitude. He also studied atmospheric refraction. Some of these works also reveal his ability to solve the problems that received attention from Arab astronomers, such as determining the Qiblah direction of prayer. His critique of Ptolemaic planetary models, as presented in the Almagest and Planetary Hypotheses, appears to have inspired research that led to their replacement by non-Ptolemaic arrangements in the 13th century Maragha and 14th century Damascus.

The surviving manuscript of this work has only recently been discovered, with much of it still missing, hence the work has not yet been published in modern times. His reform excluded cosmology, as he developed a systematic study of celestial kinematics that was completely geometric.

This in turn led to innovative developments in infinitesimal geometry. His contribution to mathematics was extensive. He developed analytical geometry by establishing linkage between algebra and geometry. He studied the mechanics of motion of a body and was the first to maintain that a body moves perpetually unless an external force stops it or changes its direction of motion.

This is strikingly similar to the first law of motion described centuries later by Isaac Newton. It comprises drawing lines from two points in the plane of a circle meeting at a point on the circumference and making equal angles with the normal at that point. This leads to an equation of the fourth degree. This eventually led Ibn al-Haytham to derive the earliest formula for the sum of fourth powers; and by using an early proof by mathematical induction, he developed a method for determining the general formula for the sum of any integral powers.

This was fundamental to the development of infinitesimal and integral calculus. Ibn al-Haytham also discovered a formula for adding the first natural numbers. His contributions to number theory include his work on perfect numbers. In his Analysis and Synthesis, Ibn al-Haytham was the first to realize that every even perfect number is of the form 2n-1 2n-1 where 2n-1 is prime, but he was not able to prove this result successfully.

It was proved later on in the 18th Century by Euler. In medicine and ophthalmology, Ibn al-Haytham made important advances in eye surgery, and he studied and correctly explained the process of sight and visual perception for the first time. He articulated a relationship between the physical and observable world and that of intuition, psychology and mental functions.

Much of his thought on phenomenology was not further developed until the 20th century. Finally, Ibn al-Haytham left his impact on many scientific disciplines through his genius insight, and novel and original observations.

Without doubt, he is considered as the pioneering father of modern optics. Smith AM. Hamarneh S. Sabra AI. In: Gillispie Charles Coulston. Directory of Scientific Biography. Bettany L. Ibn al-Haytham: an answer to multicultural science teaching?

Physics Education. Steffens B. Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist. El-Bizri N. Ibn al-Haytham or Alhazen. In: Meri Josef W. Medival Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia.

Routledge; New York, London: Gorini R. Mudry A. The history of the microscope for use in ear surgery. Am J Otol. History of the operating microscope: From magnifying glass to microneurosurgery. Kalderon AE. The evolution of microscope design from its invention to the present days. Am J Surg Pathol. Wade NJ, Finger S. Masoud MT, Masoud F. How Islam changed medicine: Ibn al-Haytham and optics.

Lehn WH, van der Werf S. Atmospheric refraction: a history. Appl Opt. Howard IP. Crombie AC. Expectation, modelling and assent in the history of optics: Part I. Alhazen and the medieval tradition. Stud Hist Philos Sci. Did Ptolemy understand the moon illusion? Qadir A. Relativity: An Introduction to the Special Theory. World Scientific Publishing Co; Singapore: p. Rashed R. The celestial kinematics of Ibn al-Haytham.

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Khaleefa O.

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## Ibn Al-Haytham: Father of Modern Optics

Kids Encyclopedia Facts Alhazen or Alhacen or ibn al-Haytham — was a pioneer of modern optics. Some have also described him as a "pioneer of the modern scientific method " and "first scientist ", but others think this overstates his contribution. He maintained that a body moves perpetually unless an external force stops it or changes its direction of motion. He laid foundations for telescopic astronomy.

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## Ibn al-Haytham

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The stories related to his life are often contradictory, depending on the historian relating them. Most of the data on the biography of Ibn al-Haytham came from the writings of the thirteenth century Muslim historian Ibn al-Qifti — Initially, Ibn al-Haytham was trained for a civil service job and was appointed as a judge for Basra. Due to the presence of various religious movements with diverse and conflicting views at that time, he became disillusioned with religious studies and decided to dedicate his time and effort for the study of science. His knowledge in mathematics and physics became legendary and he was well known in Iraq, Syria and Egypt.

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## Alhazen facts for kids

File:Classical spectacular laser effects. This mathematical-physical approach to experimental science supported most of his propositions in Kitab al-Manazir The Optics; De aspectibus or Perspectivae and grounded his theories of vision, light and colour, as well as his research in catoptrics and dioptrics. After which we should ascend in our inquiry and reasonings, gradually and orderly, criticizing premises and exercising caution in regard to conclusions—our aim in all that we make subject to inspection and review being to employ justice, not to follow prejudice, and to take care in all that we judge and criticize that we seek the truth and not be swayed by opinion. And those who are engaged upon the quest for anything for its own sake are not interested in other things. Finding the truth is difficult, and the road to it is rough. Light travels through transparent bodies in straight lines only. We have explained this exhaustively in our Book of Optics.