According to a 9 Aug New World article, animator and video game lover Steven Lisberger conceived Tron in , and publicity materials in AMPAS library files suggested that the story was originally supposed to center around a cartoon football player. A 5 Aug LAHExam item noted that storywriter Bonnie MacBird spent a year and a half working on the screenplay, but the plot and character development drastically changed throughout the rewrite process. Although News World indicated that many studios were unwilling to allow Lisberger to direct due to his lack of previous feature film More Less Various contemporary sources alternately referred to the film as Tron and TRON, due to the design of its onscreen title card.
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Summary and note were written by participant Michael Thielvoldt, a student at University of Texas at Austin, with Tom Schatz as academic advisor. Production notes in a 27 Sep Screen International identified the complete U. Additionally, the abbreviated title Dracula is commonly used.
Balderson later revised for a Broadway production. The most notable of these early play-based film adaptations is the Dracula , directed by Tod Browning and starring Hungarian actor Bela Lugosi in a reprisal of his stage performance see entry.
Additionally, the film maintains the bulk of However, he is uncredited onscreen for these roles. However, when his character stamps paperwork solidifying his purchase of the Carfax Abbey property his signature reads: "Vlad Draculea. He does not receive onscreen credit for this work.
The end credits contain the acknowledgement: "Electronic Cinema in cooperation with Sony Corporation. The film overtly makes this connection by incorporating Vlad III into the narrative, establishing him as a historical figure, and showing his transformation into the vampire Dracula.
Vlad II was anointed with the name "Dracul," which literally translated means "dragon," after his induction into the royal society the "Order of the Dragon. During these battles he earned yet another name "Vlad Tepes," or "Vlad the Impaler," because Dracula and his forces employed impalement as torture and intimidation techniques. Finally, the backstory sequence that opens the film and establishes the historic foundation for the Dracula-Mina love story is also rooted in history.
Dracula was married to a woman that threw herself from their castle into the river below. However, Montague suggests that the princess did this to avoid being captured by the Turks besieging her castle, rather than out of grief over the believed death of her husband. After the death of his first wife, Dracula converted to Catholicism, remarried a Hungarian countess, fathered two sons, and eventually died in a battle near Bucharest in Coppola used the film, along with examples from art books and the suggestion to think "weird," to convey to the design team the look and tone he wanted for the picture.
The 28 Feb HR article identified a number of vampire projects under production consideration at the time, including four Warner Bros. Additionally, Paramount Pictures was working on two vampire projects: Nightland and a sequel to the George Hamilton Dracula spoof Love at First Bite titled Blue Blood , neither of which was ultimately produced. According to a 14 Jun Screen International news item, Coppola released Oldman from the title role and was instead seeking a screen newcomer as his replacement.
It is unclear exactly when Oldman returned to the project. A 28 Feb HR article suggested that production was to begin shooting in Jun However, Coppola and then-Columbia chairman Frank Price denied the rumors and expressed anticipation for the future collaboration.
According to a 20 Nov EW article, the production acquired the nickname "Bonfire of the Vampires," due to negative rumors about production hardships and budgeting issues.
The article confirmed the rumor that Coppola fired veteran set designer Dante Ferrette and "hired a young nobody to start designing sets from scratch, just six weeks before shooting. The EW article also included the following production details: production designer Tom Sanders recalled seeing a river of blood flowing between two Sony Studios sound stages on the Culver City lot. According to Sanders, the blood, which leaked from the Dracula set, drew complaints from passers-by making their way across the lot.
Additionally, the 20 Nov EW article reported that Coppola hired acting coach Greta Seacat to serve as a mediary between him and female cast members Ryder and Frost when addressing issues of sexuality and nudity, subjects the director admitted he did not feel comfortable discussing with young females.
In a 24 Nov Village Voice interview with Manohla Dargis, Coppola explained that he wanted to channel the classic visual effects of early filmmakers like Murnau and Pabst. He explained that many effects were "in-camera opticals, or [done] with mirrors.
Another late-production scene with Anthony Hopkins was shot a month prior. McCarthy and David E. Coppola did not address these scenes in the 20 Nov EW article, in which he claimed he did not edit much out of the film in reaction to MPAA viewings. The director elaborated that the MPAA asked him to cut out some of the explicit drawings in the illustrated version of Arabian Nights viewed by Mina and Lucy.
A 7 Jun LAT article added that the production reduced the amount of blood in the film and added additional footage after an advanced screening in San Diego reportedly moved viewers to vomiting. However, a "person close to the production" attributed the amendments to an attempt to clarify the story structure and the 20 Nov EW article discredited claims that test screening audience members were throwing up in the aisles. The 7 Jun LAT article reported that audiences at the San Diego screening were divided over the film "either loving or hating it.
The premiere benefitted the American Film Institute. The film was officially released on Friday the 13th Nov It opened to impressive box office numbers and mixed critical reception. While the film was a financial success, critical reception was varied. In an AMC Filmsite article on horror films, author Tim Dirks identified Dracula as the most frequently portrayed horror character, with nearly two hundred identified performances, according to Guinness World Records.
A pinball machine was also created.
THE FIRST 100 YEARS 1893–1993
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